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Appendix: Survey sources for the TI Corruption Perceptions Index (CPI)

Number 1 2 3
Source Political & Economic Risk Consultancy
Name Asian Intelligence Issue
Year 1999 2000 2001
Who was surveyed? Expatriate business executives
Subject asked Extent of corruption in a way that detracts from the business environment for foreign companies How do you rate corruption in terms of its quality or contribution to the overall living/working environment?
Number of replies 40-50 per country 1,027> ca. 1,000
Coverage 12 Asian countries 14 countries
Number 4 5 6
Source Institute for Management Development, IMD, Switzerland
Name World Competitiveness Yearbook
Year 1999 2000 2001
Who was surveyed? Executives in top and middle management; domestic and international companies
Subject asked Whether bribing and corruption exist in the public sphere
Number of replies 4,314 4,160 3,678
Coverage 47 countries 49 countries
Number 7 8
Source World Bank Pricewaterhouse Coopers
Name World Business Environment Survey Opacity Index
Year 2001 2001
Who was surveyed? Senior managers CFOs, equity analysts, bankers and PwC staff
Subject asked "Frequency of bribing" and "corruption as a constraint to business" Frequency of corruption in various contexts (e.g. obtaining import/export permits or subsidies, avoiding taxes)
Number of replies 10,090 1,357
Coverage 79 countries 34 countries
Number 9 10 11
Source Economist Intelligence Unit Freedom House World Economic Forum
Name Country Risk Service and Country Forecast Nations in Transit Africa Competitiveness Report
Year 2001 2001 2000
Who was surveyed? Expert staff assessment (expatriate) Assessment by US academic experts and FH staff Senior business leaders; domestic and international companies
Subject asked Assessment of the pervasiveness of corruption among politicians and civil servants Levels of corruption How problematic is corruption? Are irregular, additional payments required? In large amounts?
Number of replies Not applicable Not applicable 1,800
Coverage 115 countries 27 transition economies 26 countries
Number 12 13 14
Source World Economic Forum
Name Global Competitiveness Report
Year 1999 2000 2001
Who was surveyed? Senior business leaders; domestic and international companies
Subject asked Irregular extra payments connected with import and export permits, public utilities and contracts, business licenses, tax payments or loan applications are common/not common. Questions (in addition to those mentioned left) refer to payments connected to favorable regulations and judicial decisions
Number of replies 3,934 4,022 ca. 4,600
Coverage 59 countries 76 countries